Water Treatment

Plant2Water Use and Recycling

As demands for better water stewardship increase throughout the world, so too will the need for managing this precious resource in industrial operations.  This includes a number of activities, inclusive of possessing a better understanding of all the uses of water throughout an industrial complex and conserving water when appropriate; finding innovative ways to treat single or combined wastewater streams; and recycling water to improve water and energy efficiency.

(To see additional Water Treatment technology pictures, please click here)

Plant3Water Usage & Conservation

Reliable One understands all of the uses of water within an industrial complex.  From water for utilities to facility management to process applications, Reliable One has essential expertise in understanding water and its impacts on your operations.  Reliable One has proprietary knowledge and tools to increase customers’ awareness of water usage in either an individual facility or across several facilities.  Additionally, we document best practices across several regions and industries to benchmark consumption and also to identify key areas for conserving water and energy.

Plant4Water System Reuse and Recycling

As water resources become more and more constrained, so too will the need to identify appropriate methodologies to reuse existing water flows within a facility.  To be successful in this endeavor, this requires an advanced knowledge of water quality requirements in various operations, as well as the best in class technologies to provide these prescribed water quality requirements.  Reliable One utilizes a combination of a practical engineering approach and hands-on knowledge of system operation to design, build, operate and/or maintain the optimal reuse solution for each application and customer.

Plant6The Water Treatment Process

Since produced water and frac water contain large amounts of suspended solids, including hydrocarbons, Reliable One’s treatment process contains six different steps.

Step 1) Ion Exchange process – ion exchange involves removing the hardness ions calcium and magnesium and replacing them with non-hardness ions, typically sodium supplied by dissolved sodium chloride salt, or brine. The softener contains a microporous exchange resin, usually sulfonated polystyrene beads that are supersaturated with sodium to cover the bead surfaces. As water passes through this resin bed, calcium and magnesium ions attach to the resin beads and the loosely held sodium is released from the resin into the water. After softening a large quantity of hard water the beads become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. When this occurs, the exchange resin must be regenerated, or recharged. To regenerate, the ion exchange resin is flushed with a salt brine solution. The sodium ions in the salt brine solution are exchanged with the calcium and magnesium ions on the resin and excess calcium and magnesium is flushed out with wastewater. Frequency of the regeneration or recharge cycle depends on the hardness of the water, the amount of water used, size of the softener, and capacity of the resins. Sixty to 120 minutes generally are required for the brine to pass through the unit and flush the tank before soft water is available again.

Step 2) Electrocoagulation – is performed by applying an electric current across metal plates that are submerged in water. Heavy metals, organics, and inorganics are primarily held in water by electrical charges. By applying another electrical charge to the contaminated water, the charges that hold the particles together are destabilized and separate from the clean water. The particles then coagulate to form a mass, which can be easily removed.

Step 3) Flocculation – after the raw water has been coagulated, it is gently mixed by large mechanical paddles in a process called flocculation. Flocculation causes the fine, light particles that were created during the coagulation process to mature into larger, denser, stable particles that will settle quickly.

Step 4) Sedimentation – the flocculated water then travels into primary settling basins or clarifiers. In the primary settling basins, the large, dense particles formed during the coagulation and flocculation processes settle allowing the clarified water to be separated and forwarded on through the remainder of the water treatment process. The settled particles form a sludge layer on the bottom of each primary settling basin. This sludge is periodically removed from the basins.

Step 5) pH Adjustment – the next step in the process is adjustment of the pH of the water. Lime, also known as calcium oxide, is added during this step to achieve the desired target pH. Adjusting the pH makes the water more basic, and less corrosive to the pipes it will eventually travel through. A small amount of polyphosphate solution is also added with the lime. Polyphosphate is used as a sequestrant, which helps to keep the lime in dissolved  water.

Step 6) Filtration – the final step in the purification process is filtration.   Rapid gravity filters use granular filter media (sand and anthracite) to remove any remaining suspended particles in the water. This step in the treatment process consists of passing the water through a filter at a controlled rate. Any particles remaining in the water adhere to the filter media and are removed from the water. Micro filtration and Ultra filtration are then used for further physical separation. The extent to which dissolved solids, turbidity and microorganisms are removed is determined by the size of the pores in the membranes. Substances that are larger than the pores in the membranes are fully removed. Substances that are smaller than the pores of the membranes are partially removed, depending on the construction of a refuse layer on the membrane. Micro filtration and ultra filtration are pressure-dependent processes, which remove dissolved solids and other substances from water to a lesser extend than nano filtration and Reverse Osmosis. Membranes with a pore size of 0.1 – 10 µm perform micro filtration. Microfiltration membranes remove all bacteria. Only part of the viral contamination is caught up in the process, even though viruses are smaller than the pores of a micro filtration membrane. This is because viruses can attach themselves to bacterial biofilm. For complete removal of viruses, we must then employ ultra filtration. The pores of our ultra filtration membranes can remove particles of 0.001 – 0.1 µm from fluids.

After filtration, the purification process is complete.


With over 97% of all water on Earth being salt water, only 2.5% is fresh water. Given the growing global water scarcity crisis, desalination – purifying salt water so it can be used for agriculture and even potentially human consumption – has come into even greater focus. Several desalination plants are under construction around the world, and many U.S. municipalities in California, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and west Texas are already expressing interest in purchasing the desalinated water.  Customers in many other countries would also line up for effectively desalinated water. While Reliable One is in the early stages toward commercialization of its desalination apparatus, the company is well-positioned to deliver a market-leading and cost-effective desalination solution that will bring affordable fresh water to the world. For more information, please visit Desalination.

Chemical Salt Reduction

Reliable One’s Chemical Salt Reduction Process treats produced water, reducing total dissolved solids and chlorides from 80,000 PPM to 450 PPM, well below the 500 PPM required by the Clean Water Act. As soon as the end of February 2017, Reliable One will demonstrate its chemical desalination technology, as well as other technologies as described in this plan to the Office of the Governor of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC), the EPA and the approximately 12 oil companies around Cushing and Oklahoma City that have been severely cut back or stopped from putting produced water into injection wells and have consequently had to suspend or curtail drilling operations in the state. The OCC and the governor’s office restricted the injection of produced water into disposal wells. In order to be re-permitted to drill, companies must have their water comply with the 1972 Clean Water Act. This technology will allow Reliable One to procure valuable produced water treatment contracts from companies forced to suspend their drilling operations due to these restrictions. For more information, please visit Chemical Salt Reduction.

Groundwater Cleaning Technology

Reliable One has experienced a very significant development with the U.S. national laboratory that does all the groundwater testing for the Department of Energy. The laboratory explained to Reliable One that there are four major aquifers throughout the Midwest – Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas – that are severely contaminated with nitrates. The nitrate content is so high in some areas that farmers cannot use this water for irrigation and municipalities cannot source potable drinking water from them. The laboratory asked Reliable One if it had a technology capable of purifying these aquifers from the nitrate contamination. The company has received and treated the aquifer samples. For more information, please visit Groundwater Cleaning Technology.  

Elementless Hybrid Centrifugal Separator Liquid Cyclone Filter

Reliable One Resources, Inc. has been working with one of its technology providers to design and develop an “Elementless Filter” for its water treatment processes. We have accomplished the design of a unit that will remove all solids down to 1 micron and eliminate the operator tasks of having to change out filter elements or manage any hazardous waste from those filter elements, which equates to significantly lower operating costs. Additionally, an ultrasonic and microwave capability can be added to this unit to affect the removal of some Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) by breaking the ionic bonds of the contaminants. Also, the capability to remove radionuclides can be added to the unit. These custom designed units will be manufactured exclusively for Reliable One as the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). For more information, please visit Elementless Hybrid Centrifugal Separator Liquid Cyclone Filter.

Hyperspectral Sensor

Reliable One’s Vice President of Technology Development, Dr. Adam Chu, possesses over 30 years’ experience working in an array of scientific studies and engineering for the Department of Defense and the aerospace industry. Dr. Chu is currently working on a Hyperspectral Sensing Technology (real-time water monitoring), which, once completed, will have the capability to measure all Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act contaminants in real time, 24/7, in any aqueous solution. The sensor accuracy will be in the parts per billion. This will be a revolutionary product with revolutionary capabilities, which we believe will forever change the way water testing is accomplished by using a network of nationally accredited laboratories. This new technology will eventually have far-reaching effects on the world economy as well, as it will significantly impact the medical and agricultural industries. It will also have the capability to measure contaminants and fertilizer levels in plants and measure what is in the human body and blood. For more information, please visit Hyperspectral Sensor.

Deicing and Dust Control Chemical

Reliable One Resources and its independent labs have formulated a proprietary deicing and dust control chemical that is 100% biodegradable, able to be stamped “green” and environmentally safe. As referenced in a laboratory report from RBW Squared, upon testing, Reliable One’s dust control and deicing chemical exceeded the performance of the most widely used deicing and dust control product on the market today called “Mag.” For more information, please visit Deicing and Dust Control Chemical.

Mobile Demonstration Units

In order to effectively introduce Reliable One’s capabilities to potential customers, markets, industries, and others, the company is developing mobile demonstration units that will be in the field, treating and purifying samples and other water resources. To see images of Reliable One Resources’ first mobile demonstration unit, expected to process up to 360,000 gallon per day, please visit Demonstration Unit.